Estrés Postraumático

LOS MIEDOS Y FANTASMAS QUE NOS PERSIGUEN DESPÚES DE UN SISMO… ¿ES NORMAL?

RECOMENDACIONES DE LA DRA. DESCANSO ®

Miles de personas experimentaron pánico a raíz de lo vivido por los sismos, y aunque se da la impresión de querer volver a la normalidad, buena parte del país se encuentra tensa, nerviosa y/o ansiosa.

Colchones Carreiro, se suma al dolor de su gente, preocupándose por su bienestar físico, mental y emocional, y considera de suma importancia difundir este artículo a la mayor cantidad de personas posibles.

De igual forma, como Psicóloga y como figura de la Dra. Descanso ®, con base en mi experiencia y conocimientos, me ofrezco a brindar asesoría ante cualquier duda que pueda surgir, ya sea al leer este artículo, o ante cualquier otro que se encuentre en mi blog principalmente colchonescarreiro.com/doctora-descanso-blog, y espero que esta información sea de gran utilidad.

Ahora bien, retomando el artículo que hoy les presento, resulta evidente que un acontecimiento de este tipo, en el que nos vemos en peligro, o aquel en el que vemos cómo otras personas mueren o sufren heridas, afecte nuestra sensación de que la vida es justa y/o segura. Cualquier experiencia traumática deja muy claro que tanto nosotros como nuestros seres queridos, podemos morir en cualquier momento.

ESTRÉS POSTRAUMÁTICO VS.

TRASTORNO POR ESTRÉS POSTRAUMÁTICO

Sin embargo, aunque la mayoría de las personas, con el tiempo, superan experiencias de este tipo sin necesidad de ayuda, en otras, se llega a desencadenar una reacción que puede durar muchos meses o años. Es decir, mientras es comprensible que mucha gente se sienta desconsolada, ansiosa, culpable y/o enfadada, hay reacciones que se escapan de lo esperado y que pueden constituir síntomas del Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático o TEPT.

Pero antes quiero recalcar que la diferencia entre Estrés Postraumático y un Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático, es la duración de dichos síntomas, los cuales en adultos, son los siguientes:

  • Revivir continuamente el terremoto: ya sea por flashbacks, recuerdos angustiantes, pesadillas, reacciones físicas fuertes y molestas cada vez que ocurre un temblor o se piensa que va a ocurrir uno, lo cual perjudica las actividades diarias.
  • Evasión y embotamiento: “Insensibilidad” emocional, sentir como si nada importara, no poder recordar cosas o hechos importantes en relación al terremoto, falta de interés o desgano en actividades que antes eran importantes, desconexión con los sentimientos, evitar lugares o pensamientos que le recuerden el temblor, sensación de tener un futuro incierto o impredecible, pensar que “puede pasar cualquier cosa en cualquier momento”.
  • Excitación (estando “de guardia”): estar alerta todo el tiempo; dificultad para concentrarse, sobresaltarse fácilmente y reaccionar exageradamente frente a todo lo que parezca un temblor, sentirse irritable o presentar ataques de ira. Tener problemas para dormir, ya sea para quedarse dormido o despertar varias veces en la noche.
  • Síntomas físicos (en mayor medida durante un sismo): dolores musculares, diarrea, dolores de cabeza, depresión, consumo excesivo de alcohol, uso de drogas (incluyendo analgésicos), sensación de agitación fuerte, mareo, desmayo y/o sensación de latidos del corazón en el pecho.

Por otra parte, ya que el TEPT puede darse en cualquier edad, me gustaría mencionar los síntomas de este trastorno en los niños más pequeños, quienes pueden:

  • Presentar sueños molestos del trauma, que luego pueden convertirse en pesadillas de monstruos.
  • Revivir el sismo en su juego.
  • Perder el interés en las cosas con las que solían disfrutar
  • Presentar dificultad para creer que van a vivir el tiempo suficiente para crecer
  • Frecuentemente quejarse de dolores de estómago y/o de cabeza.

 

 

 

¿ES MOMENTO DE PEDIR AYUDA?

Bueno, después de explicar lo anterior, debo aclarar que es esperado que se manifiesten los síntomas de estrés postraumático durante el primer mes aproximadamente después del evento traumático, en este caso, del sismo. Esto es porque los síntomas ayudan a continuar y a entender la experiencia por la que se ha pasado; es una “reacción aguda al estrés”. Tras pocas semanas, poco a poco se asume lo sucedido, y los síntomas de estrés empiezan a desaparecer.

 

 

 

Sin embargo, aproximadamente 1 de cada 3 personas descubrirán que sus síntomas continúan y no pueden asumir lo que ha sucedido, como si el proceso se hubiera atascado. Es decir, aunque los síntomas de estrés postraumático son normales, se convierten en un problema –en un trastorno por estrés postraumático – cuando continúan durante demasiado tiempo (más de 6 semanas), momento en el que siempre será aconsejable acudir a un especialista.

Explicado más claramente, si después de más de 6 semanas desde el sismo u otro evento traumático se percibe que estas experiencias no parecen estar mejorando, merece la pena platicar de ello con un médico ya que estamos hablando entonces de un Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático o TEPT.

 

 

RECOMENDACIONES

Ahora bien, mientras se visita a un especialista, como Dra. Descanso ® recomiendo:

  • Frecuentar amistades y/o propiciar actividades de ocio al aire libre
  • Aprender técnicas de relajación
  • Ejercitarse 30 minutos al día
  • Alimentarse sanamente y procurar beber dos litros de agua diariamente
  • Evitar ver programas y/o noticias que generen inseguridad, estrés y miedos.
  • Propiciar un descanso reparador por la noche, ya que después de dormir las experiencias difíciles reducen carga emocional y nos sentimos mejor para afrontarlas.
  • Asegurarse de que el colchón sea el adecuado para optimizar dicho descanso, y fomentar así que nuestro cuerpo y nuestra mente se recuperen más rápido
  • Ducharse diariamente, de preferencia por la noche

Para finalizar, invito a leer mi siguiente artículo en el cual hablaré más a detalle de cómo aliviar y superar estos síntomas, y recuerdo que pueden seguirme como Dra. Descanso ® en cualquiera de mis redes sociales o ingresando a mi blog http://colchonescarreiro.com/doctora-descanso-blog/

Psic. Alicia Domínguez de Pedro

Dra. Descanso ®

 

Que sueñen con los angelitos®

 

FUENTES:
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – The Invisible Injury (2002). David Kinchin. Successunlimited.
Traumatic Stress: the Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. (1996). Eds. van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, & Weisaeth L. Guildford Press. New York, London
Psychological Trauma: A Developmental Approach. (1997). Eds. Black D, Newman M, Harris-Hendriks J, & Mezey G. London; Gaskell:The Royal College of Psychiatrists
Effective Treatments for PTSD: Guidelines from the International Society of   Traumatic Stress Studies (2000). Eds. Foa E, Keane T, & Friedman M. Guildford Press. New York, London.
Treating Trauma: Survivors with PTSD.(2002). Ed. Yehuda, R. Washington DC. American Publishing. 
http://www.sigweb.cl/sitio/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Como-superar-el-miedo-a-los-temblores.pdf
http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/healthadvice/translations/spanish/tept.aspx
FOTOS: ISTOCKPHOTO 

 

 

 

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